Every year the GeoPRISMS Office compiles a list of AGU Fall Meeting special sessions that are identified as directly supporting the scientific goals of the GeoPRISMS (and MARGINS) Programs or of interest to the GeoPRISMS community. Your session is not listed? Email us at info <at> geoprisms.org and we’ll be happy to include your session to the list.
T006. Bridging Earthquakes and Earth Structure: Reconciling deformation observed over geologic and geodetic timescales
T008. Combining Geophysical and Geological Observations to Highlight Lithospheric Processes and the Dynamic Nature of Continental Arc Systems
T016. East Asia tectonic and geodynamic history since the Mesozoic
Conveners: Jonny Wu (University of Houston), Kenichiro Tani (National Museum of Nature and Science), Lorenzo Colli (University of Houston), Jinwei Gao (Institute of Deep-sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Session Description: It has been challenging to constrain the plate tectonic history of NE Asia, SE Asia, and the SW Pacific since the Mesozoic due to its relative isolation from the âglobal plate circuitâ, intra-continental deformation, and extensive subduction. Recently debated topics include: the regional subduction and collision history; the lithospheric nature of the region; the origin of displaced continental fragments and ophiolites; intra-continental volcanism and rifting; the initiation and evolution of marginal seas and their driving forces; mantle imaging and plate tectonic implications; dynamic topography; and, the plate-tectonic history of the western Pacific, paleo-Pacific and western Panthalassa. We invite contributions of new observational constraints and novel syntheses on any aspect of the Mesozoic to present-day tectonic history of Asia and Oceania from geology, geophysics, geochemistry, seismology, stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, geochronology and related fields. We also welcome geodynamic models using constraints from these regions, or tectonic comparisons of other regions to East Asia.
Confirmed Invited Speakers: Ryuta Arai (JAMSTEC), Chunfeng Li, Ocean College (Zhejiang University)
T017. Exploring Subduction Initiation Processes and Subduction Zone Dynamics: New Insights from Scientific Drilling, Marine Geophysics and Ophiolites
Conveners: Joann Stock, Brandon Shuck, Anders McCarthy, and Marco Maffione
Session Description: Fundamental processes controlling the genesis and recycling of the earth’s crust are linked to the dynamics of subduction initiation, and the evolution of mature subduction zones through time. Constraining such processes requires a combination of multidisciplinary studies, including ocean-drilling expeditions, seafloor geophysical and seismic exploration, field analyses of ophiolites preserved in mountain belts, and modeling. New data from these areas are advancing knowledge of the pre-existing structure of the plates, the initial stages of subduction initiation and arc inception and finally the development of mature subduction zones and mature arc settings. This interdisciplinary session solicits contributions from recent and past scientific drilling projects (IODP/ICDP), imaging structures and geophysical characteristics of oceanic lithosphere and nascent subduction zones, and recent advances in field, laboratory, and modeling studies constraining subduction processes from inception to arc development.
Invited Speakers: Michael Gurnis (Caltech) and Julie Tugend (ISTEP)
T018. Flow and Fracture: Mixed brittle-viscous behavior throughout the lithosphere
Conveners: Christie D Rowe (McGill University), Whitney M Behr (University of Texas at Austin), Christopher C Gerbi (University of Maine), Andre R Niemeijer (Utrecht University – Faculty of Geosciences – HPT Laboratory)
Session Description: Observations of naturally deformed rocks demonstrate that discrete brittle structures are found in regions of the earth associated with ductile deformation, including hot crust, melt or fluid-migration structures, and slowly deforming areas. Similarly, examples of continuous deformation within the “brittle”€™ crust abound — from soft sediment deformation, to cataclastic flow in fault zones, to post-seismic plastic deformation. Advances in laboratory experiments and numerical techniques have accelerated our phenomenological and quantitative understanding of geologic environments where brittle-ductile behavior might be rate-dependent, scale-dependent, fluid pressure-dependent, reaction-dependent, or time-dependent. Classic lithospheric strength profiles are based on locating intersections between frictional and viscous flow laws, but don’t account for solution creep or for spatially variable strain rates that we know characterize deforming regions of the earth. This session invites observations of mixed brittle-viscous behavior, conceptual or mechanical models of spatially and temporally heterogeneous deformation mechanisms, and bulk rheological consequences of mixed behavior.
Invited Speakers: Cailey Condit (MIT) and Jacqueline Reber (U Iowa)
T026. Linking Tectonic Geomorphology and Plate Boundary Processes in Terrestrial and Marine Environments
Conveners: Jenna C Hill (USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center Santa Cruz), Janet Tilden Watt (USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center Santa Cruz), Daniel S Brothers (USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center Santa Cruz), Jared Kluesner (USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center Santa Cruz)
Session Description: Spatial variation in the crustal structure, kinematics, and seismogenic behavior of plate boundaries is often expressed in tectonic geomorphology and shallow structure both onshore and offshore. In this session, we aim to explore the relationship between surficial geomorphology, sediment dynamics and active tectonics to plate boundary processes, including studies that link upper plate processes to deeper crustal structure or hazards that are often associated with large earthquakes (e.g., landslides, tsunamis). We invite contributions from both marine and terrestrial environments, particularly those that employ new tools and advanced techniques for characterizing and quantifying spatial variability in deformation mode, rate, and recurrence. As it is particularly important to consider studies that span major geomorphic process domains (i.e. from the shoreline to the base of the slope), we encourage contributions from a wide range of geographic areas that employ a variety of methods to examine plate boundary processes and segmentation.
Invited Speakers: invited speakers include Dr. Olaf Zielke (KAUST) and Dr. Luca Malatesta (UCSC), with a range of expertise from earthquake seismology to coupled tectonic-surface processes and geomorphology.
T029. Multiscale imaging of plate boundary fault systems: integrating geophysical and geological data
Conveners: Valerie Sahakian (University of Oregon), Maureen Walton (USGS), Anne Tréhu (Oregon State University), Estelle Chaussard (SUNY Buffalo)
Session Description: In the half century since the advent of the plate tectonics paradigm, we have gained remarkable insights into the underlying physics of plate boundary systems from substantial increases in observational data and modeling results. Moving forward, the integration of these data is essential for a holistic view of tectonic processes and the natural hazards posed by plate boundaries. We hope to attract new research from different fields to emphasize the importance of multiscale data integration, including geophysical studies of seismicity, geodetic observations, source inversions, structural models, and numerical modeling, as well as geologic studies of surface processes, geochemical and laboratory analyses, and paleoseismic observations. We especially encourage multidisciplinary contributions that emphasize multiscale data integration, but also welcome focused studies of observations, methodologies, and/or modeling that aim to improve our understanding of plate boundary systems from the Earth’s surface through the lithosphere, and their relevance to natural hazards and society.
Invited speakers: Tim Wright (University of Leeds), Dan Bassett (GNS Science)
T031. Observations and models of multiphase deformation in rifts and rifted margins
Conveners: John Naliboff, Rebecca Bell, Scott Bennett, Jolante van Wijk
Session Description: Observations from rifts and rifted margins suggest continental extension commonly involves multiple phases of deformation with distinct structural, sedimentary and magmatic characteristics. In many rifts, deformation evolves both as a function of time and location, and rift architecture may reflect the influence of structural inheritance, evolution of the lithosphere’s thermal-mechanical profile, feedbacks between surface process and lithospheric deformation or large-scale changes in plate driving forces. Here, we solicit presentations that examine the long-term evolution of continental rift systems through field, geophysical and numerical investigations. In particular, we encourage submissions that focus on the processes driving changes in deformation style and use large 3-D observational or numerical data sets to characterize lithospheric deformation.
Invited Speakers: Donna Shillington (Columbia University), Robert Gawthorpe (University of Bergen)
T032. Oceanic Lithosphere: Structure and Evolution from Creation to Destruction
We would like to encourage submission to the AGU 2018 session “Oceanic Lithosphere: Structure and Evolution from Creation to Destruction”, which may be of special interest to the GeoPRISMS community. The aim of this session is to explore what we know about the variability in oceanic crust and lithosphere both in space and over time using a range of geophysical, geochemical and geodynamic methods. Please see below for the full session description and information.
Adrian Doran, Jennifer Harding, and Zhitu Ma
Conveners: Adrian Doran (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), Jennifer Harding (University of Texas at Austin), Zhitu Ma (Brown University)
Invited Speakers: Jim Gaherty (LDEO), Maxim Ballmer (ETH Zurich)
Session Description: The oceanic lithosphere, the rigid plate covering 70% of the Earth’s surface, controls a broad range of surface and deep-Earth processes, including heat flow and energy transfer at small and large scales. Our understanding of this region has been historically limited due to its vastness and the difficulty of data collection, but recent advances in analysis and instrumentation warrant examining new perspectives on the oceanic lithosphere. We invite new science focusing on the magnitude and wavelength of heterogeneity of oceanic lithosphere in space and time from a diverse range of disciplines, including but not limited to geodynamic modeling, petrology & mineralogy, seismology, and electromagnetic methods . We also encourage submissions pertaining to the accretion of oceanic crust at spreading centers, hotspots, continental margins, fracture zones, volcanoes, thermal properties, and subduction zones.
T034. Puzzling Tectonics of the Gulf of Mexico: what do we know, what do we think we know, and what do we need to know?
Conveners: Irina Filina (firstname.lastname@example.org), Erin K Beutel (email@example.com), Patricia Persaud (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Robert J Stern (email@example.com)
Session Description: The tectonic history of the Gulf of Mexico is still being debated despite more than a century of petroleum exploration and an enormous amount of geophysical and geological data collected by industry. Tectonic models of the basin differ dramatically in key questions, such as the timing of opening, pre-breakup configuration of the crustal blocks and age of the seafloor. The proposed session intends to bring together researchers from different geoscience disciplines – geology, geophysics, geochemistry, tectonics, geodynamics – to discuss ways of improving our understanding of the basin. We welcome presentations on a broad range of topics – from addressing the continental break-up signature to those constraining sedimentation and hydrocarbon evolution. We also anticipate triggering active discussions on various aspects of Gulf of Mexico tectonics.
T035. Seafloor Geodesy — Measuring Deformation of the Seabed
Conveners: Martin Heesemann, Ocean Networks Canada, Kelin Wang, Geological Survey of Canada, Yusaka Ohta, Tohoku University, Matthew Cook, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Session Description: Seafloor geodetic methods allow for measuring crustal deformation over Earth’s vast areas that are covered by water, and therefore inaccessible to standard geodetic techniques. Over the last decade, remarkable technological progress has been made to increase the precision and scales of observations, while improving the reliability and cost effectiveness of the instrumentation. Unquestionably, seafloor geodetic measurements will continue to significantly advance our understanding of the motion and deformation of oceanic tectonic plates, earthquake processes in subduction zones, and the deformation of submarine volcanoes and spreading centers. Moreover, non-tectonic targets such as slope stability, underwater mass movements, extraction of hydrocarbons, and the sequestration of CO2 into the ocean floor can be monitored. We invite abstracts that highlight seafloor geodetic (e.g. GPS/A, differential bathymetry, seafloor pressure, acoustic ranging, seismometry, gravity, tilt, and strain) measurement systems, data processing methods, observational results, and modeling studies.
T038. Shallow subduction zone structure and dynamics
Conveners: Hongfeng Yang (the Chinese University of Hong Kong), Douglas Wiens (Washington University in Saint Louis), Shuichi Kodaira (JAMSTEC), Yan Hu (University of Science and Technology of China)
Session Description: Subduction zones play a key role in transporting and cycling earth material, as well as in earthquake, tsunami, and volcanic hazard. Recent investigations of the incoming plate, shallow subduction zone, and megathrust using near-field observations, samples, and high-resolution images have led to new insights into subduction zone dynamics. In this session we solicit contributions on all studies relevant to subduction zone dynamics from earthquake seismology, geodesy, geodynamics, geochemistry, numerical modeling, and seafloor sampling and drilling. Topics include but are not limited to, the rupture process and cycles of megathrust earthquakes, compositional variations of incoming plates, forearc to backarc structures, relationship between structural variations with outer-rise and megathrust earthquakes, thermal and hydro-mechanical properties of the oceanic and overriding plates, and the controlling factors of tectonic forces acting on the megathrust.
Invited speakers: Laura Wallace (GNS), Xiang Gao (Institute of Oceanology, CAS)
T041. Subduction Top to Bottom-2
Conveners: David William Scholl (University of Alaska Fairbanks), Gray E Bebout (Lehigh University), Laura M Wallace (University of Texas at Austin)
Session Description: From top-to-bottom, many geological, geophysical, petrologic, geochemical and theoretical advances have been made in understanding the subduction zone processes and dynamics explored in 1996 in AGU Geophysical Monograph 96, “Subduction Top to Bottom”. This session, and a related Themed Issue in the online journal GEOSPHERE, are intended to revisit the topics explored 22 years ago in Monograph 96—reassessing them in light of new advances and discoveries in subduction zone research. We invite the broadest possible thematic range of contributions, including subduction-related hazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunamis) and resources.
T042. Subduction zone processes at the Hikurangi margin, New Zealand
Conveners: Laura M Wallace (GNS Science, University of Texas Institute for Geophysics), Rebecca E Bell (Imperial College London), Kimihiro Mochizuki (University of Tokyo), Demian M Saffer (Pennsylvania State University)
Session Description: The Hikurangi subduction zone offshore New Zealandâs North Island exhibits pronounced along-strike changes in margin characteristics that make it an outstanding natural laboratory to investigate a wide range of fundamental subduction processes. This unique aspect of the subduction zone has sparked a plethora of new onshore and offshore geological and geophysical investigations. These experiments are helping to unravel the physical processes that control subduction plate boundary geodynamics and deformation. Recent efforts include scientific ocean drilling, multiple active and passive seismic experiments, seafloor geodetic deployments, and paleoseismic investigations. We welcome submissions that advance understanding of the Hikurangi subduction zone, including processes that underlie slow slip events and earthquake cycle behavior, volcanism and intra-arc rifting, volatile and fluid cycling, long-term subduction margin evolution, and geohazards associated with the plate boundary. Modeling studies, and comparative studies with other subduction zones to elucidate factors controlling subduction zone processes are also very welcome.
T043. Subduction Zone Processes, Orogenesis and Seismic Hazard: From the Alpine-Mediterranean to the Indo-Burma Region
Conveners: Patricia Persaud (Louisiana State University), Francesca Di Luccio (INGV, Rome), Claudia Piromallo (INGV, Rome), Michael S Steckler (LDEO, Columbia University)
Session Description: This session aims to promote stimulating discussions on subduction zones and orogens and the evaluation of seismic hazard in these regions. The Alpine-Himalayan belt is characterized by several spatially limited, complex, highly heterogeneous and constantly evolving subduction zones in the Mediterranean. To the east, the structure and dynamics of the Indo-Burma subduction zone is quite poorly known. Revealing the dynamics of subduction systems along the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt is relevant to seismic hazard research due to the high population densities of these regions. We encourage authors to present novel data and innovative research based on multidisciplinary approaches. Research areas may include seismic imaging, surface and mantle processes, laboratory experiments and geodynamic modeling. We particularly encourage submissions that range from local to global scales, addressing any aspect of subduction-related and orogenic processes and their implications in subduction zones worldwide.
Invited Speakers: Anne Replumaz (Université Grenoble-Alpes), Eric Sandvol (University of Missouri)
Submissions from early-career scientists are strongly encouraged.
T044. Synthesis: Knowns and Unknowns of the Cascadia Subduction Zone
Conveners: Helen Janiszewski (DTM, Carnegie Institution for Science), Wenyuan Fan (WHOI), Ikuko Wada (University of Minnesota), Caroline Seyler (McGill University)
Session Description: The Cascadia subduction zone is a global end-member warm-slab subduction zone and exhibits along-strike variations in subduction parameters (e.g., incoming plate age) and mechanical behavior (e.g., seismogenesis), serving as a unique natural laboratory to investigate a range of subduction zone processes, including tsunamigenic megathrust earthquakes, episodic tremor and slip, and arc volcanism. As these processes pose natural hazards, understanding their underlying causes is critical to natural hazard mitigation. The recent influx of offshore and onshore geophysical, geochemical, and geological data provides new opportunities to evaluate the entire Cascadia subduction zone in a coherent and consistent manner at various length and time scales. This session aims to synthesize recent findings and outstanding questions about this subduction system and the processes that occur within. We invite contributions from a wide range of disciplines, including (paleo)seismology, earthquake mechanics, geodesy, magnetotellurics, geochemistry, petrology, volcanology, structural geology, rock mechanics, and geodynamics.
Invited Speakers: Anne Pommier (UCSD), Amy Williamson (University of Oregon)
T051. The Varied Roles of Aqueous Fluids Near the Subduction Interface
Conveners: Cailey B. Condit (MIT), Besim Dragovic (Boise State), Jonathan R. Delph (Rice University), Melodie E. French (Rice University)
Session Description: Along the subduction plate interface, water influences the rheological and geophysical properties as well as the rates and products of metamorphic reactions. Recent geologic and seismic studies demonstrate that strong feedbacks exist between the fluid-mediated chemical and petrologic evolution of the rock, deformation processes that control fault slip behavior, and geophysical signals we use to interpret physical conditions at depth. Fluid distribution and flux are thought to vary with depth and the permeability structure near the plate interface. These fluids are proposed to control episodic tremor-and-slip, dehydration-induced seismicity, serpentinization of the mantle wedge, overriding plate alteration, and the 4-D evolution in interface bulk-rock compositions, active deformation mechanisms, and rock strength. We invite contributions addressing the varied influence of aqueous fluids near the subduction interface from across the Earth science community including, but not limited to: experimental studies, geodynamics, petrology/geochemistry, structural geology, and geophysics.
Invited speakers: Roland Burgmann (UC-Berkeley) and Emily Cooperdock (WHOI)
T053. Volatile cycling in subduction zones: fluid inputs, pathways & outputs, and their impact on geodynamic processes and natural hazards
T054. Whose Fault Is It? Relating Structural and Compositional Heterogeneity to Slip Behavior
Conveners: Hannah Rabinowitz (Brown University), Helen Janiszewski (DTM), Samer Naif (LDEO), Ake Fagereng (Cardiff University)
Session Description: Large plate boundary fault systems are commonly rheologically segmented both along strike and down dip, including across the transition from seismic to aseismic shear displacement. In addition to thermal controls, these variations in slip style may arise due to geometric or compositional heterogeneities along the fault zone. Many questions remain on the relationships between structure and fault behavior. For example, how does rupture propagation interact with roughness or material properties along a fault at a range of slip rates? How does this impact the global variability in seismic behavior at plate boundaries? In this session, we will highlight recent advances in characterizing observed structures, geophysical properties, lithologies, and slip behaviors at plate boundary faults at a range of scales, with a focus on relationships between these features. We encourage submissions from seismology, magnetotellurics, geodesy, earthquake rupture modeling, structural geology, fault zone drilling, and experimental work.
Invited Speakers: Thomas Goebel, TBA
S007. Emerging Science from the EarthScope Transportable Array in Alaska and Canada
S008. Environmental seismology: using geophysical tools for Earth surface processes research
Conveners: Danica L Roth (University of Oregon), Aurélien Mordret (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Bradley Paul Lipovsky (Harvard University), Michael Dietze, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum
Session Description: Recent work has highlighted the generation of elastic waves by processes at or near the Earth’s surface, and seismic techniques are being utilized to examine an increasingly diverse range of processes, hazards and materials. Seismic observations with high temporal resolution and broad spatial coverage of multiple sources and inaccessible environments. Areas of recent advancement include: mass movement (landslides, rockfalls, debris flows, lahars); hydrologic (groundwater, open water waves/tides, outburst floods, turbulence, sediment transport), cryospheric (avalanches, icequakes, calving, ice fracture/deformation, glacial hydrology/sliding), atmospheric and oceanic (microseisms, extreme weather, gravity waves) phenomena; use of large-N arrays; 4-d imaging of substrate, material, and structural attributes; and anthropogenic sources.
This session connects scientists applying theoretical, field-based and experimental seismic methods to Earth surface and near-surface dynamics. We invite contributions from geomorphology, cryospheric sciences, seismology, hazards, volcanology, soil sciences, rock mechanics, hydrology, and related fields.
Danica Roth, Aurélien Mordret, Bradley Lipovsky, and Micha Dietze
S032. The Role of Slow Slip Events in the Earthquake Cycle: Stressing, Triggering, and Hazard
Conveners: Bill Fry (GNS Science), Matt Gerstenberger (GNS Science-Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd), Yoshihiro Kaneko (GNS Science)
Session Description: Several recent great and large earthquakes have been correlated with slow slip events (SSE) on plate boundaries. Events in Japan, Chile, and New Zealand have preceded or triggered SSE. However, the physical interaction between fast and slow earthquakes is currenty poorly understood and many questions exist, including the relation of SSE to future large earthquakes. Understanding this interaction, either from a physical or statistical perspective, is crucial to explaining where and when future large earthquakes may occur.
Ongoing research aims to understand and model the occurrence of SSE. However, scant research specifically focuses on the role of SSE in triggering fast earthquakes. We invite contributions which investigate if and how SSE can trigger large earthquakes using such methods as physics based modeling (e.g., Rate and State Friction, seismicity simulators, stress modeling, etc.), empirical modeling or observations (e.g., ETAS, rate changes, etc.), paleoseismology or any study providing insight into this problem.
V001. Accessorize it! Controls on the mobility of trace elements during subduction
Conveners: Alicia Cruz-Uribe (University of Maine), Maureen Feineman (Penn State)
Session Description: Accessory phases of all types provide key tools for quantifying the trace element geochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotope geochemistry, geochronology, and phase equilibria of rocks in subduction zones. The mobility of traditional accessory phases such as zircon, rutile, titanite, monazite, allanite, and apatite, and perhaps of less studied accessory phases such as sulfides, halides, and oxides, provides a framework for interpreting trace element budgets and elemental fractionation in subduction zones, including volatiles and heat-producing elements. We invite contributions from all aspects of accessory phase geochemistry and petrology related to subduction, from the slab to the arc. We particularly invite studies linking one or more aspects of the subduction factory.
Confirmed Invited Speakers: Dustin Trail (Syracuse University)
V011. Chemistry and Physics of Redox reactions in the Solid Earth
Conveners: Fred A Davis (University of Minnesota Duluth), Maryjo N Brounce (University of California Riverside)
Session Description: Earth boasts an enormous oxidation/reduction (redox) gradient from its oxidized surface to its reduced, metallic core. The variation in redox potential between, and laterally within, these layers has profound consequences for geochemistry, geophysics, and geobiology. Redox reactions between minerals, melts, and fluids affect stable assemblages in the crust, mantle, and core. Varying concentrations of redox-sensitive elements can change the rheological properties of minerals by influencing defect concentrations. And chemical exchange between the surface and the interior has led to the evolution of physically distinct reservoirs on geologic timescales. This session hopes to foster conversations among a broad range of disciplines, including both geochemistry and geophysics. We encourage submissions describing experimental, modeling, and natural sample studies in igneous and metamorphic petrology, geochemistry, mineral physics, and seismology.
V018. Deciphering Magma-Tectonic Interactions in Rifts, Arcs, Ridges and Volcanic Fields
Conveners: Christelle Wauthier (Pennsylvania State University), Pete La Femina (Pennsylvania State University), James Muirhead (Syracuse University) and Halldor Geirsson (University of Iceland)
Session Description: Magma-tectonic interactions occur at scales from individual magmatic systems to plate boundaries. Numerous studies reveal spatial and temporal relationships between magma intrusions, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Field, geodetic, and modeling studies suggest tectonic earthquakes can trigger volcanic eruptions and intrusions through static and dynamic stress transfer. Conversely, magma transport and storage can generate earthquakes via stress changes in surrounding country rock. In rifting events, magmatic fluids can also help release tectonic stresses. Finally, the combined effects of magmatic, gravitational and tectonic stresses can trigger catastrophic volcanic flank collapse. This session will focus on the analysis and modeling of magma-tectonic interactions as broadly defined above. We particularly encourage multidisciplinary studies utilizing tools in geodesy, volcanology, geochemistry, structural geology, and seismology to decipher relationships between magmatic and tectonic processes. We also welcome studies using stress analysis and/or advanced numerical and analog modeling to understand the link between tectonic and magmatic systems.
We are looking forward to seeing you in Washington D.C!
Christelle Wauthier, Pete La Femina, James Muirhead and Halldor Geirsson
V026. Integrating perspectives on East African Rift magmatism from satellite to subsurface measurements
Conveners: Erin DiMaggio (Pennsylvania State University), Sara Mana (Salem State University), Wendy R Nelson (University of Houston), Christelle Wauthier (Pennsylvania State University)
Session Description: The East African Rift (EAR) System hosts hundreds of active and extinct volcanoes that formed prior to and in close association with continental rifting, offering an extraordinary opportunity to investigate volcanic and magmatic processes in an active rift at different stages of development. The rich history of Cenozoic magmatism in East Africa can be investigated at different scales, from magma generation in the deep Earth to the surficial expression of volcanism to satellite based studies. This session aims to highlight new and innovative research projects that bring together insights from geological, geochemical, and geophysical data sets into a unified framework that will further our understanding of EAR volcanism. We welcome contributions related to EAR magma generation, storage and transport, volatile fluxes and emissions, eruptive history, and volcano-tectonic interactions.
V027. Interdisciplinary Characterization of Volcanic Explosion Source Dynamics
Conveners: Kathleen McKee (firstname.lastname@example.org), Sarah Albert (email@example.com), Benjamin James Andrews (firstname.lastname@example.org), and Maurizio Ripepe (email@example.com)
We would like to bring your attention to the 2018 AGU Fall Meeting Session entitled, “Interdisciplinary Characterization of Volcanic Explosion Source Dynamics”. We invite contributions that explore this topic from a variety of perspectives. Please see below for more information.
Session Description: Forecasting the onset and hazards of volcanic eruptions requires an integrated understanding of precursory activity, source dynamics, and impact of erupted products. A quantitative understanding of explosion source dynamics and their associated geophysical observations is key to advancing understanding of more complex and hazardous volcanic eruptions. Volcanic eruptions range from discrete, impulsive, low-intensity explosions (strombolian) to large, sustained, plinian eruptions. Specific source dynamics vary by eruption style and location. Strombolian and Vulcanian explosions produce a variety of signals that can provide insight into specific source dynamics.
We encourage contributions investigating volcanic explosion source dynamics from various approaches such as physics-based modeling, analogue experiments, field observations, and theory. Analyses using geophysical instrumentation (seismic, infrasound, high-speed imagery, gas data, radar, deformation, etc.) are welcome. We also invite contributions using chemical explosions as a proxy for volcanoes.
V034. Role, Effect and Fate of Halogens in the Earth System
Conveners: Anita Cadoux (Université Paris Sud – Paris Saclay), Marion Louvel (University of Cambridge)
Session Description: While halogens are minor volatile species on Earth, their significant effects on the physico- chemical properties of melts and fluids makes them key actors of magmatic, metasomatic, mineralizing, and volcanic processes. Emission of volcanogenic halogens leads to long- and short-term perturbation of atmospheric chemistry, from global depletion of stratospheric ozone to life-threatening contamination of soils and water. Overall, their relatively high concentrations combined to their distinct elemental compositions in seawater and sediments makes them useful tracers to evaluate global-scale recycling processes between the Earth deep and shallow reservoirs. This session aims at gathering studies allowing a better knowledge of the halogens behaviour from the deep mantle to the atmosphere and hydrosphere. We welcome contributions that employ natural samples, experimental petrology, geochemistry, new high-precision analytical methods, volcanic gas-monitoring or modeling to study the abundance, solubility, diffusion, partitioning and speciation of halogens in magmas, minerals, fluids or gas.
Confirmed Invited Speakers: Tjarda Roberts (LPC2E, CNRS, Orléans, France), Mark Kendrick (ANU, Canberra, Australia)
V037. Sulfur – a unique player for redox evolution, volatile degassing, metal transport in magmatic, volcanic, and hydrothermal systems
Conveners: Xiaofei Pu (University of Michigan), Adrian Fiege (American Museum of Natural History), Tobias Fischer (University of New Mexico), Rita Economos (Southern Methodist University)
Session Description: Sulfur is a remarkable element that plays a major role in a range of volcanic, magmatic, and hydrothermal processes. The presence of sulfur affects the partitioning of various elements between mineral, melt, and volatile phases. The polyvalent and multi-speciation nature of sulfur in these phases makes it a unique proxy for redox processes, but adds significant challenges to sulfur-related research.
Sulfur contents and species in volcanic gasses provide critical information on volcanic activity assessment. In this regard, our understanding of the temporal evolution of volcanic gas signatures is largely dependent on experimental and thermodynamic modeling approaches, combined with field observations.
In this session we aim to facilitate dialogues between the computational, experimental and field-based volcanology, petrology, and economic geology communities, to better understand the role and behavior of sulfur and associated elements in magmatic, volcanic, and hydrothermal systems. Contributions based on interdisciplinary observations and novel analytical techniques are encouraged.
Invited speakers (confirmed): Marc-Antoine Longpré (Queens College, City University of New York – Tentative title: Sulfur systematics record the volatile-rich, oxidized, and recycled nature of the Canary Island mantle source), Echo (Shuo) Ding (American Museum of Natural History – Tentative title: sulfate solubilities and sulfur partitioning between andesitic-rhyolitic melt and C-O-H-S fluid)
V044. Volcano Seismology and Acoustics: Recent Advances in Understanding Volcanic Processes
Conveners: Alexandra Iezzi (Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks), Diana Roman (Carnegie Institution for Science Washington), Weston Thelen (USGS, Cascade Volcano Observatory), Benoit Taisne (Earth Observatory of Singapore)
Session Description: Volcanic eruptions may involve a variety of hazardous phenomena including ash plumes, gas emissions, explosions, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and lahars. Mass wasting may also occur during periods of volcanic quiescence. All of these phenomena produce seismic and infrasound signals that may provide key real-time information on hazardous surface phenomena. We can also gain insights into volcanic hazards by tracking subsurface processes such as magma and hydrothermal fluid migration using volcano seismology.
Recent advances in analysis and interpretation of seismic and acoustic data facilitate a precise characterization and quantification of the physical processes leading to and producing hazardous volcanic phenomena. However, volcano seismology and acoustics remains an emerging area of research.
We welcome submissions that explore new seismic and acoustic observations, interpretations, models, instrumentation, or techniques that further our understanding of volcanic processes and potentially aid future monitoring efforts.
We look forward to seeing you in Washington D.C.,
Alex, Diana, Wes, and Benoit
OS018. Geologic Evolution of Continental Shelves
Conveners: Shannon Klotsko (San Diego State University), Ashley McCleaf Long (Coastal Carolina University), Jillian Maloney, San Diego State University, Jenna Hill, USGS, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Session Description: The geologic evolution of continental shelves is linked to large-scale driving mechanisms including tectonics, climate, and sea level variations. On shorter timescales, processes that shape continental shelves include sediment dynamics associated with waves, tides and currents, as well as biologic activity and submarine groundwater discharge. These processes operate across various spatial and temporal scales, adding complexity to interpretations linking processes to morphology. Furthermore, continental shelves cycle between subaerial exposure and submergence associated with sea level fluctuations that repeatedly reshape the shelf and render the shoreline an artificial boundary in landscape evolution. We encourage submissions from onshore and offshore studies that investigate a broad range of topics including fluvial drainage history, sediment dynamics, paleoshorelines, drowned landscapes, shelf morphology and geologic framework controls on benthic habitats from both passive and active continental shelves worldwide. We welcome contributions from field observations including geophysical surveys, outcrop and core studies, landscape modeling, and laboratory experiments.
Invited speakers: Jennifer Miselis, USGS, #2 pending
MR003. Connecting Rheology, Microstructure, and Chemistry of the Upper Mantle: New Constraints from Experiments, Models, and Natural Observations
Conveners: Yuval Boneh (Brown), Emily Chin (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego), Katharina Marquardt (Bayerisches Geoinstitut)
Session Description: Together, the rigid lithospheric lid and underlying weak asthenosphere comprise the Earth’s upper mantle. Several features, imaged geophysically and constrained from xenoliths/exhumed mantle sections, characterize the upper mantle. These include complex mantle kinematics (e.g., flow around subduction-zones), enigmatic discontinuities (mid-lithospheric and lithosphere-asthenosphere discontinuities), as well as the cratons stability paradox (long-lived stability with evidence for deformation). These phenomena can be explained through evolution in microstructure (e.g., grain-size, crystallographic preferred orientation), the chemical environment (e.g., water content, chemistry, and structure of grain-boundaries), and/or the existence of melt. In this session, we explore the effect of microstructure and chemistry and their relationships with the strength, deformation mechanisms and tectonic history of the upper mantle. We invite abstracts from a variety of scientific ventures, e.g., rock deformation experiments, analysis of natural samples, and numerical models, to shed light on the microstructural and chemical effect on upper mantle strength and tectonic evolution.
Confirmed invited speakers: Jessica Warren (U of Delaware), Nick Dygert (U of Tennessee)
MR023. Volatile Elements in Planetary Interiors: Storage, Cycling, and Implications
Conveners: Jin Liu (Stanford University), Jessica Warren, (University of Delaware), Elizabeth C. Thompson (Northwestern University), and Marc M. Hirschmann (University of Minnesota)
Session description: Volatile elements including hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and the halogen group elements play an important role in the dynamics, structure, and evolution of the Earth’s interior, and are believed to play a similarly important role in other terrestrial planets. The cycling of volatile elements between a planet’s surface and interior can be coupled to planetary-scale processes, and volatile elements within a planet’s interior can influence a wide range of properties including redox state, conductivity, rheology, viscosity, melting, and element partitioning. This session aims to unite researchers from the fields of geochemistry, petrology, mineral physics, rock mechanics, seismology, and geodynamics whose work addresses the role of volatile elements in planetary interiors, the stability and cycling of volatile element-bearing phases at extreme conditions, and the influence of volatile elements on geological processes within the Earth and other terrestrial bodies.
Invited Presenters: Oliver Tschauner (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) and Ananya Mallik (Brown University)
We look forward to seeing you in Washington, D.C.!
On behalf of the conveners,
Elizabeth ‘Lily’ Thompson
DI009. Dynamic Connectors: How Boundary Layers Shape the Evolution of the Earth’s Deep Interior
Conveners: Keely Anne O’Farrell (University of Kentucky), Tobias Rolf (University of Oslo), Mingming Li (Arizona State University)
Session Description: Mantle dynamics at different scales are influenced by boundary layer processes. The upper boundary affects subduction processes and driving of plate tectonics. The bottom boundary controls plume generation and is dynamically linked to deep thermochemical features, such as LLSVPs and ULVZs. Plumes rising from the bottom boundary layer sample the whole mantle and place their signature on Earth’s surface, providing insight into mixing of chemical heterogeneities and the state of the deep mantle. The two boundary layers connect Earth’s surface, core and mantle interior and govern their interaction. Understanding the dynamics in the boundary layers will help to link shallow and deep mantle processes.This session will explore the dynamics of boundary layers, including generation of subduction zones, plate tectonics, mantle plumes, and heat transfer, and the resultant surface observations that provide useful constraints. We welcome theoretical, experimental, and observational contributions from geodynamics, seismology, geomagnetism, mineral physics, petrology, and other disciplines.
Confirmed invited speaker: Andy Biggin, University of Liverpool
DI020. The Influence of Mantle Dynamics on the Earth System
Conveners: Harriet Lau (Harvard University), Robert Moucha (Syracuse University), Siobhan Campbell (Syracuse University), Bernhard Steinberger (GFZ Potsdam)
Session Description: Mantle convection drives processes like mountain building, earthquakes, the origin and eruption of large igneous provinces, hotspot-related volcanism, and dynamic topography. Interdisciplinary efforts consider mantle dynamics a key influence in landscape evolution, sea- and ice-volume changes, and, through volcanism and subduction, the source and sink for important volatiles. These examples demonstrate the mantle’s role in Earth’s long-term climate. Surface manifestations of mantle dynamics not only provide constraints on subsurface structure but also valuable insight into the broader Earth system. This expansive session explores interdisciplinary approaches that use surface observations to capture this dynamic mantle-surface-atmosphere system. Questions addressed could include: Has the style of mantle convection changed through time and is this reflected in the rock record? Can novel surface observations offer new constraints on mantle properties? What is the influence of mantle convection on key events throughout Earth’€™s history? We encourage critical assessments of uncertainties in both modeling and observations.
Invited Speakers: Tim Jones (Carnegie Institution of Washington), Thorsten Becker (Jackson School of Geosciences, UT Austin)
DI022. The Role of Lithosphere Heterogeneities in Shaping Plate Kinematics and Subduction Dynamics
Conveners: Roberta Carluccio (University of Melbourne), Lorenzo Colli (University of Houston), Jennifer M. Garrison (CalState – LA), Gideon Rosenbaum (University of Queensland)
Session description: The lithosphere constitutes the upper thermal boundary layer of mantle convection. It is well established that its properties exert a fundamental control on solid Earth dynamics by determining the tectonic regime. Moreover, the lithosphere provides a primary source of thermal and chemical anomalies for mantle convection when it is injected in the mantle as subducting slabs.
Some lithosphere heterogeneities include rheological stratifications, sutures, fracture zones and, lateral and vertical variations in temperature and composition. These exist at various scales and play a major role in determining subduction dynamics and the degree and style of lithosphere-mantle coupling processes.
This session aims to highlight recent advances in constraining the scales and amplitudes of heterogeneities in the lithosphere as well as their dynamic role. We welcome multidisciplinary contributions. Some key areas of interest are lithospheric structure and morphology, subduction kinematics and dynamics, slab-mantle interaction and slab deformation, active margin tectonics and subduction-induced seismicity.
Invited speakers: Sung-Joon Chang (Kangwon National University), Luca Dal Zilio (ETH Zurich)
EP017. Forensic Earth: Novel Approaches to Reading Environmental Signals and Quantifying Surface Processes in the Geological Record
Conveners: Anjali M Fernandes (The University of Connecticut at Storrs), Yvette Eley (The University of Birmingham), Arvind Singh (University of Central Florida), Jorge Lorenzo-Trueba (Montclair State University)
Session Description: Encoded within the Earth’s surface and sub-surface are records of surface processes, as well as a plethora of proxies that offer insights into past environmental states. This archive of countless natural experiments can be used to test predictive models of landscape dynamics coupled to external forcings (eg: climate change). However, reconstructions of ancient environments are often carried out using environmental proxies without reference to the transport system dynamics, and vice versa. This session will connect the paleoclimate, surface processes and stratigraphy communities, to share emerging ideas of the roles played by physical, geochemical, and ecological processes in influencing the sedimentary record constructed by depositional landscapes and foster new, cross-cutting collaborations for the future.
We welcome submissions that span a range of spatiotemporal scales in modern or ancient environments and include field, remote sensing, experimental or numerical techniques – including but not limited to reduced complexity modeling, network analysis, machine learning, and geostatistics.
We are also keen to receive submissions focused on reconstructing ancient environmental regimes from proxy records (e.g., utilising organic biomarkers, soil geochemistry, soil carbonates, stable isotopes or clumped isotopes) where transport system dynamics are critical for accurate interpretation of proxy data.
Invited Speakers: Holly Michael (Univ. Delaware), Tom Dunkley Jones (University of Birmingham)
ED001. 3D Printing in Earth and Planetary Science Education and Outreach
Conveners: Christodoulos Kyriakopoulos (University of California Riverside), Gary B. Glesener (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Session Description: 3D printing is a cutting-edge technology that holds tremendous promise for scientific research and education. For Earth and planetary scientists, the advantages of using such technology includes the ability to elucidate spatially complex geological structures and processes that are otherwise difficult to visualize using 2D media such as computer screens or paper. Concepts around earthquake faults, volcanoes, and trilobites often become more approachable for non-experts when 3D printed because they can be handheld and sometimes physically manipulated. The generation of 3D printed models, including experimental Lab samples (e.g. synthetic rocks), is not only a way to create hands-on educational activities, but a powerful tool to present our data and numerical models to a broader audience. This session focuses on 3D printing techniques and examples of 3D printed models used to enhance educational experiences. Presentations that focus on 3D printing technology, pedagogy, or both are welcome.
Are you a Graduate Teaching Assistant with a passion for teaching? Please submit an abstract to our education session. You don’t have to compromise on your main abstract as a first author. If it is for an education session, you can submit an additional abstract as a first author.
ED054. The experiences of being a Graduate Teaching Assistant
Conveners: Kannikha Parameswari Kolandaivelu (Virginia Tech), Gary Glesener (Virginia Tech), Vincent Tong (University College London), John Chermak (Virginia Tech).
Session Description: Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTAs) play a fundamental role in teaching, engagement and student-centered learning in undergraduate geoscience lab courses. GTAs use a variety of teaching methods, models and personal insights that they have refined through their experience of teaching multiple labs/courses and by adapting their teaching strategies to evolve with the ever-changing diverse student population. Technology available to the incoming undergraduates is constantly being improved, and GTAs must keep up with those advances by using the latest curriculum materials (e.g. recent teaching videos, innovative hands-on models, and/or sensors for collecting data) in order to actively engage the students. The goal of this poster session is to share GTA experiences, present innovative ideas and/or research on GTA experiences, create a dialogue between GTAs, students, faculty coordinators, educators and audiences alike. GTAs teaching any course with any experience level are encouraged to submit an abstract and share their experiences.